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continuing the rule of the Al-Thani family that began nearly two centuries ago.
Sheikh Hamad was acclaimed Crown Prince in 1977 and at the same time was appointed Minister of Defense. In the early 1980's he led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets the Qatar's basic economic and social policies. Since 1992, Sheik Hamad has selected Qatar's cabinet and been responsible for administering the country's day-to-day affairs. He has also led the development of Qatar's oil and natural gas resources.
Sheikh Hamad, who was born in 1952, began his education in Qatar and attended Sandhurst Military Academy in England. Upon his graduation in 1971, he was commissioned as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Qatari armed forces and commanded the 1st Mobile Battalion, which has since been designated the "Hamad Mobile Battalion" in his honor.
Sheikh Hamad was later promoted to the rank of Major General and appointed Commander in Chief of the Qatari Armed Forces. He oversaw an extensive program to modernize Qatar's military, increasing manpower, creating new units, updating weaponry, and improving training. The effects of this program were evident during the Gulf War when Qatari forces helped liberate Kuwait and led the battle for the recapture of the Kuwaiti town of Khafji.
A keen sportsman and an accomplished diver, Sheikh Hamad has played an active role in promoting and developing athletics in Qatar. His activism has enhanced the country's involvement and performance in a number of international competitions, including: winning an Olympic medal in track and field; hosting a wide variety of international sporting events such as the GCC, Asian and World Youth soccer championships; and initiating the Qatar Open Tennis Championship which has grown to become one of two premier tennis competitions in the Middle East.
During the last several years, Sheikh Hamad has represented Qatar on official state visits and at numerous Gulf and international forums. His role as a leader and diplomat has earned him worldwide honors: the Order of Oman from the Sultanate of Oman, the Order of the Nile from Egypt, the Order of King Abdul Aziz from Saudi Arabia, the Indonesian Order of Ibn 'Azeem, the Order of Francisco de Miranda from Venezuela, the Order of St. Michael and St. George from Britain, the Order of Grand Officer of the Legion d'Honneur from France, the Mohammedi Medal from Morocco and the Lebanese Order of Merit.
The country has a moderate desert climate with hot summers and mild winters Winter nights can be cool, but temperatures rarely drop below 7 degrees Celsius Temperatures and humidity rise in coastal cities and towns during summer Rainfall is scarce (average 70mm per year), falling on isolated days mainly between October and March.
Archeological discoveries, inscriptions and artifacts prove that the land of Qatar was populated as early as 4000 BC In the 5th century BC, the Greek historian, Herodotus, referred to the original seafaring inhabitants of Qatar Qatar played an important role in the Islamic civilization when its inhabitants participated in the formation and provision of the first naval fleet, which was assembled to transport the army during the Islamic conquests.
During the 16th century (AD), the Qatari’s aligned with the Turks to drive out the Portuguese. Subsequently, along with the entire Arabian Peninsula, they fell under the nominal rule of the Ottoman Empire for four successive centuries — the real power and control remaining in the hands of the sheikhs and princes of local Arab tribes in 1916, a treaty was ratified with Britain in which Qatar became a British Protectorate The full independence of Qatar was announced on 3rd September, 1971